Gohory 1567 Compendium
Leo Suavius [Jacques Gohory],
Theophrasti Paracelsi philosophiae et medicinae utriusque universae, compendium
ET MEDICINAE VTRI-
Ex optimis quibusque eius libris:
Cum scholiis in libros IIII. eiusdem
DE VITAE LONGAE,
Plenos mysteriorum, parabolarum,
Auctore Leone Suauio I. G. P.
Catalogus operum & librorum.
Cum Indice rerum in hoc opere singularium.
In aedibus Rovillii, via Iacobaea,
Sub signo Concordiae.
CVM PRIVILEGIO REGIS
Leo Suavius nobili viro Renato Peroto Cenomanensi, S.
Ambitiosis scriptoribus aetatis nostrae fastuosas Principibus consecrationes relinquamus, quibus tanquam aedium suarum frontispicia exornent: nos qui otio literarum delectati iam-dudum ab eorum comitatu recessimus, magis decet ad eos nostra de-
Sunt plaerique omnis doctrinae expertes: qua fronte speras munus excepturos, quod quidem quid sit prorsus ignorant? quorsum offers margaritas sui, quae granum hordei Cleopatrae vnioni anteferret? Me miserum, qui tot infoelices noctes iis decorandis consumpsi: quos licet scientiarum imperitos agnoscerem, considebam tamen virtutem, quae sibi deesset, quam in aliis cernerent, veneratum iri. Ista verò tractatio rerum tam abstrusarum, ad quam perpauci hodiè animum conuertunt, maximè, ab iis aliena est, qui pervulgatas artes non sunt cognitione consecuti: te, Perote, digna est, cui quùm liceat per fortunas & opes in luxu & deliciis vitam transigere, nihil tamen habes optimarum quarumque rerum scientia charius, nihil antiquius. De hoc autem scriptore vt dicam quod sentio, nostro saeculo grauiorem Medicum, subtiliorem Philosophum vidi neminem. At quum pergratum tibi illum esse perspicerem, & tuo iudicio optimi cuiusque studium metirer: statui paucis obscuriores eius locos explicare: nunc
vel Menetes, cui
Nam quum fortasse habuissem aliqua ab ingenio fortunaq́ue adiumenta rerum gerendarum, conditionis tamen humanae memor, me à Principum consectatione & obsequio libenter abdicaui. Vale. Lutetiae VIII. Idus Sext. Anno M. LXVI.
Praefatio Leonis Suavii de autoris vita et operibus.
Itaque lib. vlt. de grad. scripsit Paracel. noster.
Non tamen vsquam tam aperte vel diuino fauore, vel cuiusdam philosophi reuelatione confessus est (quemadmodum Adamus) se Philosophiae chymicae perfectam cognitionem esse consecutum. Imò verò vir ille doctus, qui in Dialogo Chrysorrhoa Theophrastum collocutorem finxit protaticum, ei talem orationem tribuit:
Iam, vt ad nostrum Paracelsum redeam (quod nomen autor etiam Dialogi suppressit) legit ipse Basileae librum suum de Tartaro, quod exponit, faeces omnes humorum interiorum, à quibus varii morbi emanant: Ibi Frobenium typographum insignem morbo periculosissimo liberauit, de quo gratias agit Erasmus ille virtute & eruditione
REI MEDICAE PERITISSIMO
doctori Theophrasto Eremtiae,
Non est absurdum medico, per quem Deus nobis suppediat salutem corporis, animae perpetuam optare salutem. Demiror vnde me tam penitus noris semel duntaxat visum. AEnigmata tua non ex arte medica, quam nunquam didici, sed ex misero sensu verissima esse agnosco. In regione hepatis iam olim sensi dolores, nec diuinare potui, quis esset mali fons. Renum pinguedines ante complures annos in lotio conspexi. Tertium quid sit, non satis intelligo, tamen videtur esse probabile mihi, id mole-
In hac superscriptione Epistolae deest cognomen Paracelsus, sicut in Dialogo Chrysorrhoas: quod aliquando assumpsit, quum proprium esse Bombast. At hînc vides falsò scriptum à Gesnero, libro Bibliothecae, floruisse eum Basileae, anno M.D. vbi quidem legendo & medicando aliquot menses
At in mysteriis scimus semper illud vsurpatum fuisse, procul este prophant. Idcircò audite quae ille ipse in fine lib. de gradibus in hanc rem lectorem admonet: Quamuis haec qualiscunque demonstratio iis, qui se medicorum nomine passim venditant, obscurior fortassis atque ob id etiam lectu inutilis existat, nihil moramur, neque praetereà eos alia dignamur responsione, nisi quòd ob ipsorum imperitiam excusatos nos volumus. Itaque quicquid posthac scripturi sumus, hoc
Addam superioribus quae summa
cum diligentia reperi.
Petrus hassardus in praefatione libri Chirurgiae maioris attribuit illi libros in Philosophia 136. in medicina 70. in Theologia, Iustitia, Politicis & magia complures. Quorum plerosque iam Adamo à Bodenstein debemus, alios à Ioan. Sculteto Montano propediem speramus. Libri quidem illi Chirurgiae maioris anno praeterito in manus meas inciderant Germanica lingua non à Paracelso scripti, èquibus magnam iam partem vertendam ab hominibus linguae peritis curaueram. Adiiciam Aureolum ipsum dici praenomine in libro de Tartato quem habui cum eius expositionibus è viua voce exceptis. Nuper prorsus alius
In lib. de Tartaro germanico, & aliis quibusdam, eius hoc epitaphium reperitur.
Epitaphium D. Theophrasti Paracelsi, quod Salisburgae in Nosocomio apud S. Sebastianum, ad templi murum erectum spectatur lapidi insculptum.
In tractatu philosophiae illius ad Athenienses (quiquidem plenus est mysteriorum magnorum, primorum, vltimorum, melosiniae (verbotenus) pyromantiae, necromantiae, chiromantiae, &c. titulus est Philosophia Theoph. Bombast ab Hohenhein Sueui Arpinae germani eremi ad Athenienses.
Valentii Antrapassi Silerani, Praefatio in opus Paramyricum, continens opera innumerabilia Paracelsi.
Carbuetus autem Theophrastum prae Aristotele haud secus aestimat, atque literas aureas prae caecis, aut lumen prae carbonibus, in cuius philosophia, omnis Aristotelica atque Platonica doctrina repudiata est, quorum philosophorum duas sectas Cyperinus Flaenus claudicantes, Ramdus opinabiles appellat. Multa praetereà scripsit, de republica, de arrogantia potentum, de erroribus vulgi, de Theologia, ductus odio idololatriae, sacrorum numulariorum, magnaeque hypocritarum auaritiae. Quibus sanè de causis haud immeritò eius opera germanicè reddidimus, idque communis vtilitatis ergò, quam ille semper in omni sua vita spectauit, quámque summum bonum humanum suis de repub. libris appellauit. Rogo autem omnes, qui ipsius libros latinè legerunt, vt si quid me errasse in quibusdam viderint, id corrigant, atque emendent, méque sibi commendatum habeant.
Catalogus eorum quae hoc opere continentur.
COMPENDIVM Philosophiae et Medicinae Vniuersae Ph. Theophrasti Paracelsi Leone Suauio I. G. P. autore.
Ph. Theoph. Paracelsi libri IIII. De Vita longa.
Primus continet in genere tractationem de Vita longa.
Secundus, enumerat singularem medendi rationem, ad vitam sanam à morbis recuperandam, integrámque conservandam.
Tertius, vtitur essentiis quintis, et absoluit arcanum Elixiricum, ad vsum eiusdem sanae vitae.
Quartus, fundamentis iactis lib. I. Vitae longae, supremam manum imponit .i. ei vitae, quae praeter naturam existit.
Vnà cum eiusdem Paracelsi effigie ad viuum, vt ipse curauit, expressa.
English Raw Translation
Generated by ChatGPT on 28 February 2023. Attention: This translation is a machine translation by artificial intelligence. The translation has not been checked and should not be cited without additional human verification.
I present to you, my dearest friend, the books of annotations on Paracelsus' De Vita Longa, as if they were my own children, whom I would entrust to your care rather than my own. For they belong to me by right, but they also belong to you, my sweet friend, by the bond of friendship, since all things are shared among friends. And since they have been imbued with philosophy, it is only fitting that I should call upon you, who are so devoted to philosophy, to act as their guide and initiator.
Let us leave the ambitious writers of our time to dedicate their works to proud princes as if they were adorning the façades of their homes. We who have long been delighted by the leisure of letters should rather dedicate our works to those who possess virtue, rather than seeking empty glory through ostentatious dedications.
Most people are ignorant of all learning. How can you hope to present a gift to those who are completely unaware of its value? Why offer your precious pearls to someone who would prefer a grain of barley to Cleopatra's pearl? Wretched me, who spent so many unhappy nights adorning my works! Although I knew that they would be recognized by those who were ignorant of the sciences, I nevertheless hoped that they would venerate the virtue that was lacking in themselves, which they might see in others. However, this discussion of such abstract matters, which only a few people today pay attention to, is particularly alien to those who have not yet attained a knowledge of the common arts. You, Perotus, are deserving of it, for even though you have the fortune and wealth to lead a life of luxury and pleasure, there is nothing more precious or more ancient to you than the knowledge of the best things.
As for this author, I have not seen a more serious physician or a more subtle philosopher in our age. And when I saw that he was pleasing to you, and since I judged your enthusiasm to be that of the best of men, I decided to explain briefly some of his more obscure passages: sometimes with annotations, sometimes with paraphrases, and sometimes with arguments, but always with the explanation of his new terms. For diligent men and those who study hidden things (who alone are suited to this task), as the poet says, learn all things from one, and the light that is brought to one place is also transmitted to other places that are surrounded by the same darkness. As for the number of Paracelsus' books, I have heard that there are nearly three hundred editions in German. Oh, the fecundity of his genius!
Regarding his medical and surgical skills, in addition to curing daily illnesses, he wished to demonstrate his excellence in Nuremberg by treating twelve lepers and restoring them to their former health. This is a truly remarkable achievement for many people, but for those who consider his rare and extraordinary remedies made from the flower of cherry trees, the arcanum of coral, the essence of gold, the mystery of antimony, and many other such remedies, which are not yet known even by name to ordinary doctors, it is not incredible. But if the arts were pleasing to our kings, for, as Cicero says, they are nourished by honor, and we are all inspired by glory to pursue them. Just as they were to King Francis the Great, nature is not exhausted, nor is our royal court so barren of talent that there is no hope that the knowledge of the greatest and most useful things (which the ancient Magi and Poets wrapped in such great mysteries) will be brought to light in our times and discovered as if drawn from the well of Democritus. Meanwhile, as you know, after long travels in pursuit of knowledge, following the example of that philosopher, I have spent all my resources in the contemplation of the most beautiful aspects of nature in the suburban gardens of my city. Just as Iapix in Virgil, who
He preferred to know the powers of herbs and the practice of healing,
and pursued in obscurity the silent arts,
His skill was his fortune, and he lived in humble circumstances,
unknown to the great ones of the world, cultivating herbs he had hired to plant.
When I perhaps had received some assistance from talent and fortune for conducting affairs, yet mindful of the human condition, I willingly resigned myself from the pursuit and obedience of princes. Farewell. In Paris, on the 8th day before the Ides of September, in the year 1566.
Preface written by Leon Suavius about the author's life and works
Theophrastus Paracelsus von Hohenheim is called "Eremita" in many of the inscriptions of his books, as well as by Erasmus of Rotterdam, in a letter addressed to him, and I deemed it fitting to include this testimony to his unique learning. Some, such as Adam von Bodenstein, say that he was a Doctor of Philosophy and Medicine, including surgery under that name, which today are separated and distinguished to the great detriment of the public. His book "Labyrinth of Errant Physicians" exists among the medical community. His book "On the Impostures of Physicians" exists among surgeons, but in German only, which I have heard is being translated into Latin by a German. I have in my possession a prediction of his for the 24th year of his age, foretelling grave hardships for all of Europe in enigmatic language. I will describe a catalogue of his other books, of which I have knowledge. He was born a German, with a strong body and a sharp mind, in Einzidlen, a region of the Helvetians. He obtained the foundations of Philosophy from his father, Wilhelm von Hohenheim. Some say he was of noble birth and highly skilled in all kinds of sciences, but due to the distance between places and regional differences, I cannot confirm the splendor of his birth. Adam von Bodenstein published several volumes of his work, which he illustrated with his prefaces, such as "On Long Life," "On Degrees and Compositions of Receptacles and Naturals," and "On Tartarus," which was published with annotations from the oral teachings of a master at Basel. Adam von Bodenstein would have been right to keep himself within the confines of his own preface, and not have preached his true and certain knowledge of the Philosopher's Stone to the Prince of Venice, and later to the Fuchars. Wise men have never claimed such knowledge, nor boasted of it in their writings. Wise men have never boasted and condemned such displays of their writings. The monuments of Paracelsus, which are imbued with traditions of metallic things, sufficiently testify to his great expertise in alchemy, which he himself called by the new term "Spagyric". He also admits in this book "On Long Life" that he was delighted with these new terms, which he used to ward off the profane from reading it, but to attract students of wisdom. I will explain most of them, taken from his other books, according to his interpretation. As Augurellus sang, in those hidden arts, "it is not right to reveal everything."
Therefore, in our Paracelsus' last book "On Degrees", he wrote: "And these are indeed the great works by which I rightfully glory in nature, and there are still more of them."
However, he never confessed anywhere openly, whether by divine favor or by the revelation of a certain philosopher (such as Adam), that he had achieved a perfect understanding of alchemical philosophy.
Moreover, that learned man who portrayed Theophrastus as the primary speaker in the Dialogue Chrysorrhoa attributed to him the following speech: "As for me, attempting anything for my own benefit, it cannot be perceived by anyone anywhere. Although Chrysophilus made you more certain of being engaged in the innermost sanctums of absolute knowledge by these words of yours. Did you not also perform the same many times? But now you deny it. Did you not assist in the most wretched diseases, even though you never entered the schools of medicine, but surpassed all European physicians with your own ethereal qualities and abstract medical ability? They have long since extended the palm to you. Therefore, you cannot evade it longer without offending me greatly." To which Theophrastus replied, "Even if I acknowledge these as true, you still know it is said by wise men that you should not disclose what you want to keep secret to anyone. I confess that I have indeed discovered much about the energy and efficacy of both metals and metallic things with the help of physics itself, whose practice contributes greatly to the public benefit and to the art of healing itself. However, attempting what you said, etc., when I realize that it was the downfall of kings and even of Jason, who, together with his children, was completely destroyed by his own wife, perhaps because he had handled this mystery carelessly, and the books were burned with the royal court. Now consider, I beg you, whether anything of this kind should be desired by a wise man."
Take note, Adam, and recognize that those who have attained this wisdom keep it close to their chest; their display of it is a strong indication of their ignorance. For at the beginning of that dialogue, Chrysophilus says, 'But I see Theophrastus walking there, a man from Hohenheim, if Germany ever produced an absolute master of this art.' Augurellus spoke to this effect:
"But who, with a fragile and fortified heart, could ever keep silent about this? For what prudence forbids one to say: When what was said will harm oneself immediately? Who could safely protect himself from ambushes with his virtue, and yet hide great wealth in a small box? Therefore, if someone has been able to accumulate such great treasures, he wonderfully keeps them in friendly silence."
To return to our Paracelsus (a name which the author of the Dialogue also suppressed), he himself read his book on Tartar in Basel, which explains that all the dregs of internal fluids emanate from which various diseases arise. There he freed the famous printer Froben from a very dangerous illness, for which Erasmus, famous for his virtue and erudition, thanks him and implores his help in his adversity, with a clear testimony of his rare and new expertise in the art of healing. For he laid the foundations of a new art, and overturned the old ones of the Greeks Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna, Rasis, and Mesue, and drew most remedies from the metallurgical workshop, as can be seen from his writings.
"To the most skilled doctor in the art of medicine, Theophrastus Eremita, Erasmus of Rotterdam sends greetings.
It is not absurd for a doctor, through whom God supplies us with bodily health, to wish eternal health of the soul. I wonder how you could know me so thoroughly, having only seen me once. I recognize that your riddles are not from the medical art, which I never learned, but from the miserable experience of truth. I have felt pains in the region of the liver long ago, and I could not divine what the source of the malady was. Several years ago, I noticed fatty deposits in my kidneys. As for the third thing, I do not understand it well enough, but it seems to me that what you said is probable, that it is a heavy burden that I cannot get rid of in these days when I cannot be cured, nor fall sick, nor die. I am overwhelmed by the labor of so many studies. If there is anything, however, that can alleviate my illness without affecting my bodily state, I ask that you share it with me. If you are free, please elaborate on the things you noted so concisely in a few words and prescribe other remedies that I can take when I am free. I cannot promise you a reward for your art, but I promise a grateful mind, which is equally important. You have brought Froben back from the dead, which is half of me; if you can also restore me, you will restore both in each individual. I wish that the fate that detains you in Basel be a fortunate one. I am afraid that what I have written is hasty and may be difficult to read. Farewell.
Erasmus of Rotterdam. In his own hand."
In this letter's superscription, the surname Paracelsus is missing, just as in the dialogue Chrysorrhoas, which he sometimes used, although his proper name was Bombast. From this you can see that Gesner wrote falsely in his book Bibliothecae, claiming that Paracelsus flourished in Basel in the year 1500, where he spent several months reading and practicing medicine. Now, as for our accusation of Adam, that he too clearly displayed his own knowledge, I fear that our Paracelsus may fall into the opposite criticism, as he seems to have obscured the light of his art with excessive darkness. However, we have brought to this work as much light as we could extract from both the writings of others and his own writings, and let the discerning reader judge it fairly. We will only add this, his own testimony about Long Life in his book on the degrees, book III, chapter III: "And by what means these things are accomplished in the renewal of former youth, in the book of Long Life, certain peculiar mysteries are indicated, which are beyond the secrets of nature."
Now, we know that in mysteries it has always been said, "keep away from the profane." Therefore, listen to what he himself advises the reader on this matter at the end of his book on the degrees: "Although this demonstration, whatever it may be, may be somewhat obscure to those who sell themselves everywhere under the name of physicians, and therefore may also be useless to them in reading, we do not hesitate, nor do we consider it necessary to respond to them in any other way than to excuse ourselves on account of their own ignorance. Therefore, whatever we write in the future, we shall say it only to the students of philosophy: meanwhile, we also ask the younger candidates for medicine not to be afraid or despair because of the obscurity of our writing, but rather to strive to investigate the spagyric arts, in which, being imbued, they will fully understand the meaning and even the foundation of our writing."
I will add to the above what I have found with great diligence. Peter Hassard in the preface of the book Chirurgiae maioris attributes to him books on philosophy 136, medicine 70, theology, justice, politics, and many on magic. Most of which we owe to Adam von Bodenstein, and we hope to have more soon from Johannes Scultetus Montanus. Indeed, those books of Chirurgiae maioris came into my hands last year in the German language, not written by Paracelsus, from which I had already translated a large part by men who were proficient in the language. I will add that he himself is called Aureolus in the book on Tartar, which I have with his own explanations received from his own mouth. Recently another edition has been published with the third revision of the author and seven defenses against physicians. Peter Hassard even adds the name Philipp to him in the Charta de nova methodo medendi, which seems to me to be the same as the book that Johannes Wierus condemns in his book De Praestigiis Daemonum under the title of the book Paragrammon, in a certain sense of the medical profession, since Paracelsus attempted to overthrow entirely the principles that were then in use. Hence he stirred up great controversies with the physicians of his time and region, whom he vehemently criticized in all his books. But the main testimony is the book of seven defenses, from which it will be allowed to seek a response against Vvierus. In the book of the Labyrinth, his image is depicted in Latin at the age of 45, showing a tall figure with a serious face, a broad forehead, a bald forehead, and medium-length hair. Around it was an inscription that was familiar to him and which he used frequently.
Let no one claim what is not theirs.
In the book of German Tartarus and some others, this epitaph is found.
The testimony is primarily in the book of seven defenses, from which it will be permissible to seek a response against Vvierus. In the book of the Labyrinth, his image is depicted in Latin, showing a tall stature and a serious face with a broad forehead, a bald scalp, and moderate hair: around which was an inscription that was familiar to him and which he used frequently.
Let no one claim what is his.
In the book of German Tartarus, and others, this epitaph is found.
Epitaph of D. Theophrasti Paracelsi, which can be seen engraved on a stone on the wall of the temple at the hospital of St. Sebastian in Salzburg.
"Here lies Philippus Theophrastus, a renowned doctor of medicine, who with his wondrous skill cured dreadful diseases of the body such as leprosy, gout, dropsy, and other incurable afflictions, and also distributed his wealth to the poor and arranged for its proper use. In the year 1541, on September 24th, he exchanged his life for death."
In his treatise on philosophy addressed to the Athenians (which is full of great mysteries, both first and last, including Melosinia, Pyromancy, Necromancy, Chiromancy, etc.), the title is "Philosophy of Theoph. Bombast of Hohenheim, a Swabian recluse, addressed to the Athenians."
I have gone through the Latin writings of the great philosopher and physician Theophrastus on medicine and philosophy, as well as the writings of the Arabs, Chaldeans, and Greeks, and have found that Theophrastus' writings are much stronger, more reliable, and more solid than those of Avicenna, Hippocrates, and Galen. Furthermore, his established opinions are based on stronger and more reliable reasoning and experiences than those of Rasis, Mesue, and other ancient physicians. In fact, Theophrastus' writings are like silver tested by fire, extremely reliable and well-tested. His opinions on medicine, which are found in all of his books, are not conformable to and similar to those of ancient physicians. Instead, his entire practice and theory of medicine encompasses many unique ideas worthy of intellectual examination.
The true inventor of medicine and a certain philosopher named Nous did not rely on the writings of the ancients, but on a certain philosophical foundation (which is like white to black) to express their ideas in writing. If it were not for his books and wisdom, which are much more useful and fruitful than those of others, the Athenians would have certainly called him not only the destroyer of all errors, but also the leader of the fundamental principles of medicine. That is why the Hebrews also call him the other Moses and even admit that their Rabbi Moses wrote much more acutely and subtly than him. Finally, the German Hippocrates from Pessula is called the new Asclepius. Therefore, out of a certain kind of love and impulse, since we see that such praise is given to this German philosopher and physician and that his writings are useful to people, I have translated his writings into Latin so that even those who do not know the Latin language can use and enjoy them.
I have tried to do this three times before, but I was hindered by the hatred of certain doctors. This fourth attempt, however, had a fortunate outcome. Finally, these writings were translated into French by Cyperinus Flavus and into Greek by Bebeus Rando so that some benefit could be derived from them by the general public. Although no one of greater distinction than Theophrastus has existed in our memory, and as Alexander Perseus testifies in a certain letter, no such person has ever been born, it seems that his writings were not intended or ordered by him to come to light. In fact, they were stolen and removed by the indication of a certain slave while he was absent and enclosed within a wall. Later, when they came into my hands, those of Claonius Neapolitanus, and those of Michael Greiffsteiuenri, we first printed them without making any changes to the Latin, and then had them translated into four languages. Once the Greeks learned of this, they called him the perpetual monarch because of his extremely acute and subtle writings, in which hardly a single word of his is worthy of note or criticism. However, since he did not follow the path of the ancients, some people evaluate his work in different ways. Benzoevulus believes that his teachings are the natural gospel and the treasury of truth. Moreover, he not only wrote 53 books on medicine, which were enclosed in the wall, but also 236 volumes on philosophy, which, as the Sabean Dacian affirms, have never been heard of before and are equivalent to Aristotle's writings.
However, Carbuetus regards Theophrastus no less highly than Aristotle, just as he would value gold letters over blind ones or light over coal. In his philosophy, all of Aristotle's and Plato's teachings are rejected, and he refers to the two sects of philosophers, the Cyperinus and the Flaenus, as limping and doubtful. He wrote many other works as well, on topics such as the state, the arrogance of the powerful, the errors of the masses, and theology, driven by his hatred of idolatry, the money-changers of the temple, and the great greed of the hypocrites. For these reasons, we have rightfully translated his works into German, for the sake of common utility, which he always had in mind throughout his life, and which he called the greatest human good in his books on the republic. I ask, however, that all who have read his works in Latin correct and amend me if they see any errors, and take me as their trusted companion.